Friday, June 29, 2012

Dairy consumption does not induce weight loss

A growing body of research suggests that regular consumption of dairy foods may counteract obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Researchers in the June issue of Nutrition and Metabolism aimed to determine the effects of increasing the consumption of reduced fat dairy foods in adults with habitually low dairy intakes. An intervention trial was undertaken in overweight or obese adults who were randomly assigned to a high dairy diet (HD, 4 serves of reduced fat dairy/day) or a low dairy control diet (LD, less than 1 serve/day) for 6 months then crossed over to the alternate diet for a further 6 months. Total energy intake was higher during the HD phase, resulting in slight weight gain during this period. No weight loss was found. Bonnie: Hopefully, this study will help to dispel the Dairy Council's propaganda campaign to promote dairy consumption for weight loss.

Thursday, June 28, 2012

Cancer cells have a voracious appetite for this.

Compared to normal cells, cancer cells have a prodigious appetite for glucose. A research team has investigated the reverse aspect: how the metabolism of glucose affects the biochemical signals present in cancer cells. In research published June 26 in the journal Molecular Systems Biology, they demonstrated that glucose starvation -- that is, depriving cancer cells of glucose -- activates a metabolic and signaling amplification loop that leads to cancer cell death as a result of the toxic accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Because cancer cells live on the edge of what is metabolically feasible, this amplifying cycle of oxidative stress ultimately overwhelms and kills the cancer cell. These findings illustrate the delicate balance that exists between metabolism and signaling in the maintenance of cancer cell homeostasis. In addition, the authors showed the possibility of exploiting this positive feedback loop for therapeutic intervention. Combining short-term glucose deprivation with an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases, they demonstrated synergistic cell death in a cancer cell line.

Bonnie: How many times do we have to say it? Sugar feeds cancer cells.

FDA Approves Diet Drug Belviq: Our Take

Steve: I wonder who had to twist the FDA's arm to get this one approved? With the litany of exclusions and warnings, can anyone really take Belviq anyway?
  • What's the takeaway from the research? According to a September 2010 FDA Advisory Committee presentation, after two years, all the weight the subjects lost (which was only mean 3.3%), was regained while still on the treatment (see slide 40 at this link:
  • Impact on diabetes patients, the ones who could benefit the most, is unknown.
  • Long-term effects on cardiovascular outcomes in the general population: unknown
  • Affects heart valves, causes psychiatric and cognitive effects, serotonin syndrome in humans, and carcinogenicity in animals.
  • Versus placebo, there is an increased risk of valvular heart disease
  • Versus placebo, depression symptoms were far greater in drug than placebo, including memory impairment, disturbance in attention, and insomnia.
  • Versus placebo, there is a slight increase in suicidal behavior.
  • Other adverse mental effects versus placebo: feeling abnormal, confusional state, feeling drunk, and hallucinations. 
Wow! The potential for all of these issues and the return is a meager 3.3% of weight loss?

The drug works to control the appetite through receptors in the brain and was approved as additional therapy for certain overweight and obese patients, combined with diet and exercise.

It is approved for use in obese adults with a body mass index of 30 or greater, or overweight adults with a BMI of 27 or greater who have at least one other condition such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, or high cholesterol.

The FDA warned that Belviq is not for women who are pregnant or nursing, and called for further long-term postmarketing studies on the drug's potential risks.

The label will also recommend that Belviq be discontinued in patients who fail to lose five percent of their body weight after 12 weeks of treatment.

Belviq activates the serotonin 2C receptor in the brain, and may cause serious side effects if taken in combination with certain medications for depression and migraine that increase serotonin levels or activate serotonin receptors.

Belviq (Lorcaserin) was rejected in 2010 by the Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee, which advises the FDA, over concerns that it formed breast tumors in rats. But those effects did not appear in trials on overweight and obese humans.

Merck overstated effectiveness of mumps vaccine: lawsuit says

Bonnie: this may be shocking for some or "par for the course" for others.

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

Oldie but goodie for CVD

Researchers have discovered an enzyme that, when found at high levels and alongside low levels of HDL, can dramatically reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The enzyme -- glutathione peroxidase, or GPx3 -- is a natural antioxidant that helps protect organisms from oxidant injury and helps the body naturally repair itself. In patients with low levels of good cholesterol, the GPx3 enzyme could potentially be a big benefit.

The new research, published in PLoS One, supports the view that natural antioxidants may offer the human body profound benefits. In the study, researchers found that people with high levels of the GPx3 enzyme and low levels of good cholesterol were six times less likely to develop cardiovascular disease than people with low levels of both.

Serum samples were studied from participants who died of cardiovascular disease after 5-12 years of follow-up care. The ages of patients studied ranged from 26-85 years old. Their data was compared to control samples.

Steve: Glutathione is crucial for methylation (detoxification) and is a component in one of our oldest and most successful supplemental formulas.

Study confirms a calorie is not just a calorie.

The best long-term diet is a balanced one with healthy carbohydrates (low in grain and starchy carbohydrates). Most importantly, the researchers admit that all calories are not created equal. The results were published in the June 27th issue of Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). Here are the details:

Diet 1: The low-fat diet, which had a high glycemic load, was designed to reflect conventional recommendations to reduce dietary fat, emphasize whole grain products, and include a variety of vegetables and fruits.

Diet 2: The low–glycemic index diet aimed to achieve a moderate glycemic load by replacing some grain products and starchy vegetables with sources of healthful fat and low–glycemic index vegetables, legumes, and fruits.

The low-fat and low–glycemic index diets had similar protein and fiber contents.

Diet 3: The very low-carbohydrate diet was modeled on the Atkins Diet and had a low glycemic load due to more severe restriction of carbohydrate. Reserachers provided 3 grams of fiber with each meal (Metamucil, Procter & Gamble) during the very low-carbohydrate diet as recommended.

To ensure micronutrient adequacy and minimize the influence of micronutrient differences among all test diets, they gave each participant a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement.

This is a direct quote from the researchers: "The results of our study challenge the notion that a calorie is a calorie from a metabolic perspective. During isocaloric feeding following weight loss, Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) was 67 kcal/day higher with the very low-carbohydrate diet compared with the low-fat diet. Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) differed by approximately 300 kcal/day between these 2 diets, an effect corresponding with the amount of energy typically expended in 1 hour of moderate-intensity physical activity."

Although the very low-carbohydrate diet produced the greatest improvements in most metabolic syndrome components examined herein, they identified 2 potentially deleterious effects of this diet. Twenty-four hour urinary cortisol excretion, a hormonal measure of stress, was highest with the very low-carbohydrate diet. Higher cortisol levels may promote adiposity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease, as observed in epidemiological studies. C-reactive protein also tended to be higher with the very low-carbohydrate diet in our study.

"In conclusion, our study demonstrates that commonly consumed diets can affect metabolism and components of the metabolic syndrome in markedly different ways during weight-loss maintenance, independent of energy content. 

The low-fat diet produced changes in energy expenditure and serum leptin that would predict weight regain. In addition, this conventionally recommended diet had unfavorable effects on most of the metabolic syndrome components studied herein. 

In contrast, the very low-carbohydrate diet had the most beneficial effects on energy expenditure and several metabolic syndrome components, but this restrictive regimen may increase cortisol excretion and CRP. 

The low–glycemic index diet appears to have qualitatively similar, although smaller, metabolic benefits to the very low-carbohydrate diet, possibly without the deleterious effects on physiological stress and chronic inflammation. 

These findings suggest that a strategy to reduce glycemic load rather than dietary fat may be advantageous for weight-loss maintenance and cardiovascular disease prevention."

Bonnie and Steve: Always nice to see reaffirmation in a conservative medical journal like JAMA.

How chiropractic helps during pregnancy

From Dr. Liselotte Schuster:

Many women have successfully utilized the service of chiropractors throughout pregnancy for the relief of back pain and discomfort commonly associated with pregnancy. Since the advent of the Webster technique, many women have started chiropractic care with a malpositioned baby and experienced its timely turning under care.

More recently, women have been seeking chiropractic care for the potential elimination of dystocia (difficult labor). Here is yet another reason how chiropractic care throughout pregnancy can help pregnant womenhave safer, easier births. About 1 in 200 pregnant women suffer from preeclampsia with hypertension and albuminaria (protein in urine), which can lead to seizures, coma and death. The cause is unknown.

The authors studied pregnant women to see if there was a relationship between their spinal shape, particularly the lumbar (lower back) spinal shape and preeclampsia. It was revealed that women with decreased lumbar spine curves had more preeclampsia. Interestingly, they also found that patients with reduced lumbar curves had decreased blood flow to the iliac artery than normal pregnant women.

Hypolumbarlordosis: a predisposing factor for preeclampsia. Kanayama N. Maradny EE, Kajiwara Y. et al. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology,

This article appeared in
Pathways to Family Wellness magazine, Issue #051997;75: 115-121.

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Overdiagnosis of Disease

This must read editorial just published in Archives of Internal Medicine.

Friday, June 22, 2012

Rice, potato, and tomato may be as inflammatory as wheat

In several instances, we have covered this issue in NCI Well Connect. This author sufficiently explains why this is commonplace.

Two Factors Reduce Mortality in Older Women.

No surprise here. In women 70 to 79 years old, low consumption of carotenoids from fruits and vegetables, as well as low physical activity, strongly increased the risk of mortality. A simple message here: the more fruits and veggies you eat, and the more you exercise, even at an older age, the greater your chance of a longer life! The study appeared in the most recent issue of Journal of the American Geriatric Society.

Thursday, June 21, 2012

Are Parents Poor Role Models With Physical Activity?

Children who said their parents do almost no physical activity have a 50 per cent greater risk of being unfit than children with more physically active parents, according to new research. A study in Journal of Physical Activity and Health found two-thirds of children think their parents do almost no physical activity, meaning they are proving to be poor role models for their offspring. 

Researchers asked more than 4,000 schoolchildren to rate how active they thought their parents were. While one in five children said at least one of their parents was active, only one in ten said they had two active parents. The researchers highlighted that as parents act as role models for their children, particularly girls, parents need to be seen to be active to show their children how to live a healthy, active life.

To be active in the study, parents only had to be perceived by their children to do two or three sessions of physical activity per week including walking, cycling, running, going to play sport, going to a gym or an exercise class.

Wednesday, June 20, 2012

Reflux meds for infants skyrocket

Courtesy of Reuters Health

According to a study in this week's Pediatrics, the FDA looked at an acid reflux drug called lansoprazole (sold as Prevacid) due to concerns about efficacy and safety in infants.

The medication is not indicated for children younger than one, and studies show it has no effect in that age group. Yet doctors wrote 358,000 prescriptions for the drug to babies under one in 2010.

Dr. Eric Hassall, a pediatric gastroenterologist at the California Pacific Medical Center, said the number reflects rampant overuse of acid drugs in infants.

"These drugs work very well when they are prescribed for the right indication," he told Reuters Health. "But in infants they are very seldom indicated."

He added that stomach acid is the first defense against many infections and blocking it even for part of the day will raise children's risk of pneumonia and stomach infections.

"My concern is that we are unnecessarily exposing infants to infectious and nutritional complications," Hassall said. "Doctors are too quick to prescribe and parents are very quick to demand, and this is of course driven by consumer advertising."

"I would advise parents that if their child is growing and developing normally despite spitting up, they should resist the urge to give the child a medical diagnosis and administer prescription medications," he added. "If their child is excessively irritable or otherwise unwell, they should seek medical consultation."

Coffee lowers Alzheimer's and colon cancer risk

Alzheimer's Disease
A recent study monitoring the memory and thinking processes of people older than 65 found that all those with higher blood caffeine levels avoided the onset of Alzheimer's disease in the two-to-four years of study follow-up. Moreover, coffee appeared to be the major or only source of caffeine for these individuals. Researchers say this provides the first direct evidence that caffeine/coffee intake is associated with a reduced risk of dementia or delayed onset. Their findings appeared in the June issue of Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.

The results suggest that older adults with mild memory impairment who drink moderate levels of coffee -- about 3 cups a day -- will not convert to Alzheimer's disease -- or at least will experience a substantial delay before converting to Alzheimer's.

A study tracking the health and coffee consumption of more than 400,000 older adults for 13 years, and published earlier this year in the New England Journal of Medicine, found that coffee drinkers reduced their risk of dying from heart disease, lung disease, pneumonia, stroke, diabetes, infections, and even injuries and accidents.

Colorectal Cancer
Researchers in the June issue of American Journal of Clinical Nutrition evaluated coffee and tea intakes (caffeinated and decaffeinated) in relation to colon (proximal and distal) and rectal cancers using the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study including 489,706 men and women over a median of 10.5 years of follow-up.

Compared with nondrinkers, drinkers of 4–5 cups coffee and more than 6 cups coffee per day had a lower risk of colon cancer, particularly of proximal tumors. Results were similar to those overall for drinkers of predominantly caffeinated coffee. No associations were observed for tea.

Lifestyle changes help prediabetic women live longer

Long-term lifestyle intervention (diet, exercise, or both) helps women with impaired glucose tolerance live longer, according to the results of a study presented at the American Diabetes Association 72nd Scientific Sessions. The findings come from 23 years of follow-up data on participants in the Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study.
In 1986, subjects with a mean age of 45 years, from 33 clinics, with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 lifestyle intervention groups (diet, exercise, and diet plus exercise). The intervention took place from 1986 to 1992. In 2009, 23 years after randomization, the long-term effects of the intervention on all-cause and cardiovascular (coronary heart disease, stroke, and sudden death) mortality were determined.
In women, lifestyle intervention reduced all-cause mortality by 53% in the intervention group compared with 29.3% in the control group. The reduction in all-cause mortality in women was mainly due to differences in cardiovascular mortality (heart disease and stroke).

Monday, June 18, 2012

Stress levels up big since the early 1980's

Stress increased 18% for women and 24% for men from 1983 to 2009, according to researchers a study of more than 6,300 people for Journal of Applied Social Psychology. It's considered the first-ever historical comparison of stress levels across the USA. In research done in 1983, 2006 and 2009, those with higher stress were women, people with lower incomes and those with less education. Findings also show that as people age, stress decreases. According to the researchers, thirty-year-olds have less stress than 20-year-olds, and 40-year-olds have less stress than 30-year-olds, who has studied the relationship between stress and disease for 35 years.

Results show increases in stress in almost every demographic category from 1983 to 2009, ranging from 10%-30%. White, middle-aged men with college degrees and full-time jobs were the group most affected by the economic downturn. This group's increase was almost double that of any other demographic group.

Experts say this study is more credible than most stress surveys because of its scientific methodology. And the results make sense, they say. When you compare the early 1980s to today, economic pressures are greater, and it's harder to turn off information, and it's harder to buffer ourselves from the world.

Wednesday, June 13, 2012

Our Thoughts: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Rules on Calcium and Vitamin D

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published a draft recommendation statement today regarding the efficacy of calcium and vitamin D for the prevention of cancer and bone fractures. To nobody's surprise, they did not recommend them for any combination of cancer prevention and bone fractures. After reading the statement, it is hard to argue with them. Here's why:

If the task force was to recommend them, then insurance would have to cover calcium and vitamin D supplements for cancer prevention and bone fracture prevention. Big Pharma would never let this happen.

Here are our comments on their five positions:

"The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of the benefits and harms of vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium, for the primary prevention of cancer in adults."

AGREE to DISAGREE. At the doses they looked at, 400IU or less, there would very little impact on cancer prevention. The studies they looked at were also not structured properly and the adequate length of time to see true results could not be taken seriously. We would venture to say that with more research in the pipeline at higher doses, this recommendation will change in the future.

"The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of the benefits and harms of combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in premenopausal women or in men."

AGREE. We have never, and will never, recommend calcium and vitamin D, especially in the doses that most physicians prescribe, for prevention of fractures in premenopausal women or men WITHOUT MAGNESIUM. Even if vitamin D enhances the absorption of calcium, it cannot to make up for the imbalance that taking calcium without magnesium creates.

"The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of the benefits and harms of daily supplementation with more than 400 IU of vitamin D3 and 1,000 mg of calcium for the primary prevention of fractures in noninstitutionalized postmenopausal women."

AGREE. For the same reason as the aforementioned, there is little benefit if not accompanied by magnesium. Our clients have heard this message over and over again for over two decades.

"The USPSTF recommends against daily supplementation with less than 400 IU of vitamin D3 and 1,000 mg of calcium carbonate for the primary prevention of fractures in noninstitutionalized postmenopausal women."

HIGHLY AGREE. We are so happy that they specifically targeted calcium carbonate. We have always recommended against calcium carbonate (rock calcium source such as TUMS) for several reasons: it is very poorly absorbed; it blocks absorption of other minerals; it neutralizes stomach acid. We applaud them for this ruling.

"The USPSTF has previously concluded in a separate recommendation that vitamin D supplementation is effective in preventing falls in community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older who are at increased risk for falls (B recommendation)."

AGREE. There is a lot of evidence to back up this recommendation.

Final thought: We are huge proponents of individualized doses of high quality calcium sources, vitamin D3, WITH magnesium for the prevention of fractures. The trio would not be our first recommendation for the prevention of cancer. However, they could not harm and certainly may assist.

Tuesday, June 12, 2012

Inulin lowers cholesterol in those with hyperlipidemia: study

Inulin has been shown to be an effective therapeutic for reducing total cholesterol and triglycerides. In a Clinical Lipidology study, net changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides of hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic subjects with inulin compared with controls were calculated. The results indicate that a diet rich in inulin has beneficial effects on total cholesterol and LDL-C, as well as triglyceride concentration in the plasma of hyperlipidemic subjects.

Among the many products that contain inulin, two that we commonly recommend are Metamucil Clear and Natural and Sweet Leaf Stevia Plus packets.

Tea as a blood sugar preventive

The best way to slash the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is to drink at least four cups of tea a day. A study of European populations found that people in countries that drank four cups a day had a 20 percent lower risk of developing the illness. The study found that benefits seemed to be most obvious among heavy tea drinkers as drinking a mere one to three cups a day didn't lower the risk.

Tea consumption may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes by influencing glucose digestion, glucose uptake, and by protecting beta-cells from free-radical damage. This beneficial effect would be due to the polyphenols present in tea.

The research was done in 26 centers in eight European countries, and consisted of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases plus thousands of others without the disease.

Two strongest environmental breast cancer risks

A new study published in the August issue of Archives of Internal Medicine concluded that the two most important environmental risks for breast cancer are avoiding and reducing exposure to medical radiation and postmenopausal hormone therapy. In fact, the Institute of Medicine stated that reducing exposure to medical radiation "is one of the primary evidence-based actions that could reduce breast cancer risk, and the medical community should do everything in our power to reduce unnecessary exposures as quickly as possible."

Bonnie: The IOM targeted CT scans specifically, mostly because they deem many of them unnecessary and pushed purely for financial gain. Strong stuff.

First study to link statins with fatigue

A study to be published in the August issue of Archives of Internal Medicine is the first to "affirm unfavorable statin effects on energy and exertional fatigue. Effects were seen in a generally healthy sample given modest statin doses, and both simvastatin and pravastatin contributed to the significant adverse effect of statins on energy and fatigue with exertion. Particularly for women, these unfavorable effects were not uncommon. Findings support case reports citing adverse effects to these outcomes and are buttressed by literature rationale. These findings are important, given the central relevance of energy and functional status to well-being. These effects, germane to quality of life, merit consideration when prescribing or contemplating use of statins, particularly in groups without expected net morbidity/mortality benefit, extending to “high-risk” primary prevention and women and elderly persons (including those with coronary artery disease). Thus, long-term trials are important, especially if statin use is to be recommended in younger individuals. Meanwhile, physicians should be alert to patients' reports of exertional fatigue or diminished energy during statin use."

Bonnie: if we look at this study, it is not surprising that the FDA levied warnings on statins for memory loss and blood sugar spikes. All the symptoms are connected.

School children abusing prescription amphetamines (i.e. ADHD drugs)

Comments on NEJM Omega-3 study

A study published yesterday in The New England Journal of Medicine looked at the efficacy of one gram of supplemental omega-3 fish oil on older diabetic patients with a history of a cardiac event. Not surprisingly, the fish oil did nothing to prevent cardiovascular deaths. How tired is it to keep reading these studies performed on sick people. There are so many holes that can be blown in this study it is hard to know where to begin. At least the authors admit this in their discussion of the results.
  1. The researchers used the prescription fish oil Omacor, which is ethyl ester-derived. There have been very few positive findings on this brand of fish oil. Most experts in the know believe that triglyceride fish oil, not ethyl ester, is the most efficacious. Most importantly, Omacor contains trans fat in its formula. Because there is no level of safe trans fat, this study should have been considered dead on arrival.
  2. One gram of fish oil is considered a daily maintenance dose. The dose required to treat people with diabetes and previous cardiovascular events is 3-4 grams daily.
  3. These patients were on at least one diabetes medication and other heart medications which were not divulged. Much of the benefits that could potentially come from the fish oil are negated from the polypharmacy.
  4. Do I dare even that the study was not double-blind, placebo-controlled? It wouldn't matter. The design of the study renders its structure meaningless.
 Interestingly, the study found that triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in the participants, which is congruent with many other studies when fish oil is prescribed at a one gram daily dose.

Thursday, June 07, 2012

Should Exercise Be Classified As a Drug?

Triathlons, ultra-marathons and other types of extreme endurance events are becoming increasingly popular as people test their limits and push themselves in the name of good health. But is extreme exercise actually healthy? As reported in a new study in the journal Mayo Clinic Proceedings, physical activity, like so many things in life, is best practiced in moderation.

Exercise is like a powerful drug. It releases powerful mood enhancing chemicals, which can become addicting for some. We all know someone who is addicted to running, biking, pilates, or other type of physical activity. More exercise is better up to a certain dose, but after that, there is a point of diminishing returns, and it may actually detract from heart health and even your longevity.

The research team found that people who exercised on a regular basis benefited significantly and increased their lifespan by an average of seven years over those who didn’t exercise. But when looking at extreme athletes, they discovered that the healthful effects of their exercise not only decreased, but actually turned against them. One culprit may be increased levels of the enzymetroponin. The enzyme is released when the heart muscle is in distress, and during extreme exercise it can climb as heart muscle fibers start to tear under the pressure of constantly pumping at a high level.

The damage doesn’t happen overnight, but over time scar tissue forms on the heart, and endurance athletes end up having thicker right atria and larger right ventricles. A thickened and scarred heart is more susceptible to abnormal heart rhythms. Studies have shown that endurance athletes have a five times higher risk of atrial fibrillation, or fluctuations in the heartbeat that can create greater cardiac risk.

Many cardiac experts believe the best amount of running for increased longevity is about 10 to 15 miles per week. We don't need more heroic exercisers. We need many, many more people doing moderate exercise on a daily basis.

Food Affects Mood

While there is a growing body of literature linking nutrition to mood, there is little information about food intake in people with diagnosed mood disorders. A study in the May issue of BMC Psychiatry study evaluated food intake obtained from 3-day food records in adults with mood disorders. Compared with regional nutrition survey data and national guidelines, a greater proportion of study participants consumed fewer of the recommended servings of vegetables and fruits. The participants also had greater intakes of high-fat whole grain products, processed meats, and higher sugar, fat or salty foods. Of the 1746 total meals and snacks consumed, 39% were from sources outside the home, suggesting a lack of time devoted to meal preparation. Finally, a subsample of participants agreed to have blood tests: 44% had mild hypercholesterolemia and 21% had hypercholesterolemia. The results of this study suggest that adults with mood disorders could benefit from nutritional interventions to improve diet quality.

Friday, June 01, 2012

Dark chocolate shines once again

A British Medical Journal study looked at the long term effectiveness and cost effectiveness of daily dark chocolate consumption in a population with metabolic syndrome at high risk of cardiovascular disease. 2013 people with hypertension who met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, with no history of cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive therapy. Daily consumption of dark chocolate (polyphenol content equivalent to 100 g of dark chocolate) can reduce cardiovascular events by 85 per 10,000 population treated over 10 years. Only $42 could b e cost effectively spent per person per year on prevention strategies using dark chocolate. These results assume 100% compliance and represent a best case scenario.

Steve: these are numbers Big Pharma could only dream about. $42 per year?! Sure makes other cardiac meds look like chumps.