Bonnie - this is one of the most disturbing study designs I have ever seen.
First, the subjects were given INTRAVENOUS probiotic therapy. I have never heard of this method, I have never seen any research on it, and I certainly would never have taken this route if I was the researcher. Healthy flora exists in the digestive tract, not in the bloodstream. How could the researchers have thought that bacteria (even if good) would improve outcomes when injected into the bloodstream?
Second, the subjects were gravely ill with pancreatitis! How and why the researchers thought probiotics could help their outcomes is asinine. These are not the kind of subjects to be testing intravenous probiotics on.
Probiotics are very safe and incredibly well-researched when administered as they should be...orally or topically!! They have been found naturally in fermented foods for thousands of years.