- Dietary products [resveratrol, green tea extract, -tocopherol, vitamin C, n–3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, and tomato extract] selected for their evidence-based antiinflammatory properties were combined and given as supplements to 36 healthy overweight men with mildly elevated plasma C-reactive protein concentrations in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study with treatment periods of 5 wk. Inflammatory and oxidative stress defense markers were quantified in plasma and urine. Furthermore, 120 plasma proteins, 274 plasma metabolites (lipids, free fatty acids, and polar compounds), and the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and adipose tissue were quantified.
Plasma adiponectin concentrations increased by 7%, whereas C-reactive protein (principal inflammation marker) was unchanged. However, a multitude of subtle changes were detected by an integrated analysis of the "omics" data, which indicated modulated inflammation of adipose tissue, improved endothelial function, affected oxidative stress, and increased liver fatty acid oxidation.
An intervention with selected dietary products affected inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, and metabolism in humans, as shown by large-scale profiling of genes, proteins, and metabolites in plasma, urine, and adipose tissue.
- Healthy boys aged 8–10 y (n = 33) were randomly assigned to receive placebo or 1 of 2 doses of DHA (400 or 1200 mg/d) for 8 wk. Relative changes in cortical activation patterns during sustained attention at baseline and endpoint were determined by functional magnetic resonance imaging. At 8 wk, erythrocyte membrane DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in subjects who received low-dose (by 47%) or high-dose (by 70%) DHA but not in those who received placebo (–11%). During sustained attention, both DHA dose groups had significantly greater changes from baseline in activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex than did the placebo group, and the low-dose and high-dose DHA groups had greater decreases in the occipital cortex and cerebellar cortex, respectively. Relative to low-dose DHA, high-dose DHA resulted in greater decreases in activation of bilateral cerebellum. The erythrocyte DHA composition was positively correlated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation and was inversely correlated with reaction time, at baseline and endpoint. Dietary DHA intake and associated elevations in erythrocyte DHA composition are associated with alterations in functional activity in cortical attention networks during sustained attention in healthy boys.
- A substantial body of scientific evidence has shown that by simply varying the macronutrient distribution and composition of dietary factors, weight losses of varying amounts, longer-term body weight maintenance periods, better appetite regulation, and changes in features of the metabolic syndrome can be achieved. At present, renewed efforts are underway to increase the protein content of weight-loss diets, simultaneously restrict fat consumption to no more than 30%, favor polyunsaturated fat, have carbohydrates account for between 40 and 50% of total energy intake, and promote the consumption of low-glycemic foods.
- The incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing worldwide. Clinical studies have observed reduced risks of AD among infants fed with 100% whey infant formula (PHF-W) compared with intact protein cow's milk formula. In this study, the cumulative incidence of AD was significantly lower among infants over at least 3 years of follow-up in the whey group compared with the intact protein cow's milk group. Exclusive breastfeeding should be encouraged as the primary means to prevent atopic risk. However, when infants are not exclusively breastfed, whey may be considered an effective measure to potentially reduce the risk of developing AD.
- For users, dietary supplements provided the adequate intake (AI) recommendation for calcium intake for 12% of those 71 y. Males and females aged 1–3 y had the highest prevalence of meeting the AI from dietary and total calcium intakes. For total vitamin D intake, males and females 71, and females 14–18 y had the lowest prevalence of meeting the AI. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher prevalence of groups meeting the AI for calcium and vitamin D. Monitoring usual total nutrient intake is necessary to adequately characterize
and evaluate the population's nutritional status and adherence to recommendations for nutrient intake.
- DHA deficiency is associated with major aspects of cognitive performance in nonpatient adults under 55 years of age.
- Evidence supports the proposition that DHA deficiency increases vulnerability to neuronal atrophy in the Pre Frontal Cortex of patients with affective disorders.
- Neither consuming more dairy products, nor switching from whole milk to reduced-fat milk at age 2 years, appears likely to prevent overweight in early childhood.
- This study aimed to study lifestyle changes consistent with reducing diabetes risk and factors associated with their adoption among 1402 adults over age 20 with prediabetes. Almost 30% of the U.S. adult population had prediabetes in 2005–2006, but only 7.3% were aware they had it. About half of adults with prediabetes reported performing diabetes risk reduction behaviors in the past year, but only about one third of adults with prediabetes had received healthcare provider advice about these behaviors in the past year. Adoption of risk reduction behaviors among U.S. adults with prediabetes is suboptimal. Efforts to improve awareness of prediabetes, increase promotion of healthy behaviors, and improve availability of evidence-based lifestyle programs are needed to slow the growth in new cases of diabetes.